Mathematics Placement Test (MPT) Alignment with Washington State College Readiness Mathematics Standards (CRMS)


 Antony Leon Sanders
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1 OEA Report Mathematics Placement Test (MPT) Alignment with Washington State Jon Peterson October 2006 INTRODUCTION This report provides a basic description of the Math Placement Tests (MPT) currently in use in five of the six public baccalaureate institutions in Washington State. These tests are developed by math faculty at participating institutions and reflect the college level curricula common to those institutions. The recently developed are also described, along with an analysis of the alignment of the MPT to those standards carried out by external agency, Achieve, Inc. In light of limitations of the tests as identified by Achieve, Inc., further analyses were carried out by the University of Washington Office of Educational Assessment and are reported here. MATH PLACEMENT TESTS (MPT) In 1984, Washington State public baccalaureate institutions adopted common mathematics placement tests to assist entering students, together with their academic advisers, in selecting first year mathematics courses for which they are best prepared. Tests are developed by a collaboration of math faculty from participating institutions. 1 While institutions use the same tests, they do not share placement score cutoffs; these are determined by faculty at each institution in accordance with local curricula. Statewide test administration is coordinated by the Academic Placement Testing Program (APTP), housed in the University of Washington Office of Educational Assessment. Two versions of the test enable placement of students with varying levels of academic preparation: The Intermediate Math Placement Test (I MPT) is composed of 35 multiple choice (five alternative) items covering Elementary Algebra, Intermediate Algebra, and Precalculus I, and is intended for students who have less than three or four years of high school math. The Advanced Math Placement Test (A MPT) consists of 30 multiple choice (five alternative) items covering Intermediate Algebra and Precalculus I and II, and is directed toward students who have taken at least three or four years of high school math, including a precalculus, calculus, or math analysis course. 1 These are: Central Washington University, Eastern Washington University, University of Washington, Washington State University, and Western Washington University. Copyright 2006 University of Washington Office of Educational Assessment
2 At any given time, two parallel forms of each version are in use. The primary form (currently Form F) is used for all regular administrations, while the secondary form (currently Form G) is used for retests. Every three to four years, a parallel form is created to replace the current secondary form. The existing secondary form replaces the primary form, and that form is retired. Because the purpose of the tests is to predict how well students will do in college level mathematics courses, test items have been created according to the content areas considered to be requisite to success in those courses by the faculty who teach them. The number of items for each content area is listed in Table 1, below. Table 1. Content areas covered by Mathematics Placement Tests Content Area Intermediate Test Advanced Test Basic manipulation 7 Distance 2 Exponents and roots 3 Factoring 2 Inequalities 1 Proportions 3 2 Linear graphs and functions 6 3 Functional notation 3 2 Graph interpretation 4 4 Quadratic graphs and functions 4 2 Equations 4 Exponents and logs 4 Absolute value 2 Simplifying 3 Trigonometry 4 Total COLLEGE READINESS MATHEMATICS STANDARDS (CRMS) The Washington State Transition Mathematics Projects (TMP) is a consortium of K 12 schools, community and technical colleges, and baccalaureate institutions in Washington State. Over the past two years, this group has developed the to define the core knowledge and skills expected of students entering college level mathematics courses in Washington State. 2 The purpose of this work is to assist students to progress successfully from high school math to college level math. The standards developed by TMP fall into two general categories, Process and Content, as shown in Table 2, below. Each of the standards is comprised of several components, for which TMP identified specific learning indicators. For instance, the Functions standard is comprised of six components (e.g., recognize functional relationships presented in words, tables, graphs, 2 See OEA Report 0606: Mathematics Placement Test (MPT) Alignment with Washington State 2
3 and symbols ) and 34 learning indicators (e.g., determine and interpret the meaning of rates of change, intercepts, zeros, extrema, and trends ). As can be seen from the Table, the standards represent much broader content areas than those to which the MPT items were written, consistent with the broader purpose of the TMP. Table 2. Definition of College Readiness Mathematics Standards Process Standard Reasoning/Problem Solving Communication Connections TMP Definition The student uses logical reasoning and mathematical knowledge to define and solve problems. The student can interpret and present mathematical knowledge in both mathematical and everyday language. The student makes connections between ideas in mathematics, to other subject areas, and to realworld situations. Content Number Sense The student accurately describes and applies concepts and procedures related to real numbers. Geometry The student makes hypotheses, models situations, draws conclusions, and supports claims using geometric concepts and procedures. Statistics and Probability The student accurately describes and applies concepts and procedures from probability and statistics to analyze data. Algebra The student accurately describes and applies concepts and procedures from Algebra. Functions The student accurately describes and applies function concepts and procedures to understand mathematical relationships. ALIGNMENT ANALYSIS BY ACHIEVE, INC. Achieve, Inc., is a national, non profit organization created to improve the quality of secondary and post secondary education by assisting states in aligning their curricula with international standards of college and work readiness. Because of the congruence between this work and the goals of TMP, the latter group commissioned Achieve to analyze and report on the alignment of the Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL) tests with the ly created CRMS. At the request of the UW Office of Educational Assessment, TMP subsequently extended this request to include a similar analysis of the I MPT and A MPT. The structure and content of these tests were created many years prior to CRMS and with a fairly restrictive end (e.g., placement into specific courses) in mind. Nevertheless, we felt it would be useful to learn the extent to which the content coverage matched the broader statement of college readiness embodied in the CRMS. The results of the Achieve analysis were reported in June In carrying out their study, Achieve mapped the 65 individual I MPT and A MPT items (Form F) to CRM Standards as shown in Tables 3 and 4, respectively. Although any given item may reflect learning in more than one standard, Achieve identified the single standard to which the item seemed most directly related. Additionally, while some items were mapped to specific learning indicators, others were mapped only to the broader component due to characteristics either of the item or the CRMS. 3 See OEA Report 0606: Mathematics Placement Test (MPT) Alignment with Washington State 3
4 As shown in the Tables, Achieve identified only three items as relating to Process standards (1 to Reasoning/Problem Solving, 2 to Communication, and 0 to Connections). Additionally, the remaining 62 items did not map equally to all Content standards; the majority (72%) mapped either to Algebra or Functions. Although 48% of the components and learning indicators in the CRMS align to these two standards, the I MPT and A MPT would seemingly over represent these two content standards, as noted by Achieve. The authors concluded that the math placement tests do not fully represent all of the areas of capability represented by the standards and, in particular, that the tests address Content but not Process standards. Achieve recommended that the I MPT and A MPT be revised taking the CRMS into consideration, particularly with respect to the addition of items relating to Process standards. REVIEW AND REANALYSIS BY OEA The finding that the math placement tests do not provide complete coverage of the CRMS was neither surprising nor disconcerting. Not only were the structure and content of the I MPT and A MPT determined years before the CRMS were developed, but the purpose of the test is much more restrictive than that of the CRMS. The MPT are not designed to provide a comprehensive assessment of student readiness for all forms of college level math, but to place entering college students into specific first year mathematics courses. That being said, we still felt that there would be value in an accurate mapping of MPT items to the CRMS in that it might suggest modifications to enhance the predictive value of the tests. As noted above, the strategy adopted by Achieve in mapping MPT items to the CRMS relied on one to one connections between items and standards. This approach does not recognize that individual items may call on students to demonstrate multiple capabilities relating to more than a single standard. We believed this to be a significant limitation in approach and so determined to carry out a second mapping of math placement test items to the CRMS. We began our analysis by reviewing the original content areas for which MPT items were created, as listed in Table 1. It has been several years since these areas have been reviewed, and we discovered that some areas were not defined consistently across the I MPT and A MPT. For example, while items involving absolute value equations are included on both tests, only the A MPT has an Absolute Value category. For the purpose of the alignment analysis, and with an eye toward improving the consistency across the tests, we outlined several possible changes to the definition of content areas as shown in Table 5. The redefined content areas then were used as the basis for the alignment analyses, summarized in Tables 6 and 7. The most observable difference between the results of the Achieve mapping and our subsequent reanalysis results from our decision to map each item to multiple standards, where appropriate. Although we may be interested for some purposes in the primary alignments of each item, this is not the case when the focus of our interest is in the overall coverage of the tests. In addition, there is overlap among the standards themselves. TMP states that although the standards are necessarily presented as separate and distinct areas, they are clearly inter connected, building upon each other. In fact, the OEA mapping disagreed with that of Achieve on only a single item (I MPT item #26), though we mapped approximately half of all items onto multiple OEA Report 0606: Mathematics Placement Test (MPT) Alignment with Washington State 4
5 standards (15 of 35 on the I MPT, and 17 of 30 on the A MPT). The primary result of this approach is that many standards Achieve identified as under represented by the MPT seem less problematic in light of the OEA mapping. For instance, while Achieve mapped only six of the 65 items to the Geometry standard, OEA mapped ten items. Our analysis did reveal one standard for which coverage was markedly uneven. All of the sixteen items that mapped to the Probably/Statistics standard related to a single learning indicator ( use and interpret pie charts, bar graphs, histograms, box and whisker plots, scatter plots, stem and leaf, and line graphs ). This may be appropriate, given the content of first year mathematics courses, or it may be that a broader understanding of this content area is required. If this is the case, additional items should be created to cover the remaining three components of the Probability/Statistics standard. With respect to over emphasis given to Content versus Process standards, our response is mixed. Although we mapped a larger number of items to the Process standards than did Achieve, our analysis agreed that the coverage was lower than that of the Content standards. Of the 25 items mapped to the Communication standard, all mapped to only two learning indicators ( summarize and interpret many different types of graphs and create symbolic representations for situations described in everyday language ), and two of the three components associated with this standard are not addressed. Additionally, our analysis agreed with that of Achieve in mapping no items to the Connections standard, while we disagreed with Achieve s sole mapping onto the Reasoning/Problem Solving standard. Where we may disagree with Achieve, is in the judgment that the MPT should give the same coverage to Process standards as to Content. Because the tests are in paper pencil and multiplechoice format (which does not allow students to justify their answers or show their work) it may be unrealistic to expect them to adequately assess Process standards. It also may be unnecessary. While the Process standards are part of the broader outcomes expected of graduating high school students, unless it can be demonstrated that they improve the quality of placement into college level courses, the lack of coverage in the MPT is not only not problematic, but appropriate. CONCLUDING REMARKS AND NEXT STEPS Consideration of the alignment of the MPT with the CRMS is particularly timely given the current plans to introduce a form of the placement tests. It is reassuring to read Achieve s praise of the tests relatively good coverage of the Content standards, strong content and performance centrality, and sufficiently varying level of demand across items in each test. And while neither the I MPT nor the A MPT can be argued to comprehensively assess the CRMS, it should be reiterated that these tests are principally designed to place entering college students into first year mathematics courses for which they are best prepared, rather than to provide a comprehensive assessment of their K 12 mathematics education. Nevertheless, the revised mapping of the MPT items to the CRMS should be included in a deliberate discussion of the structure and content of the next form or forms of the placement tests. OEA Report 0606: Mathematics Placement Test (MPT) Alignment with Washington State 5
6 Table 3. ACHIEVE Mapping of Math Placement Items by Current OEA Subscale and College Readiness Mathematics Standard INTERMEDIATE TEST College Readiness Mathematics Standards Process Standards Content Standards Current OEA Subscale Reasoning / Probability / ProblemSolving Communication Connections Number Sense Geometry Statistics Algebra Functions (0 items) (2 items) (0 items) (5 items) (2 items) (1 item) (9 items) (16 items) Basic Manipulation (7) 7 6 1, 2, 3, 4 5 Distance (2) Exponents & Roots (3) 10 9, 11 Factoring (2) 12, 13 Functional Notation (3) 29, 30, 31 Graph Interpretation (4) 35 32, 33, 34 Inequalities (1) 8 Linear Graphs & Functions (6) Proportions (3) 15, Quadratic Graphs & Functions (4) 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, , 26, 27 Table 4. ACHIEVE Mapping of Math Placement Items by Current OEA Subscale and College Readiness Mathematics Standard ADVANCED TEST College Readiness Mathematics Standards Process Standards Content Standards Current OEA Subscale Reasoning / Probability / ProblemSolving Communication Connections Number Sense Geometry Statistics Algebra (1 item) (0 items) (0 items) (2 items) (4 items) (2 items) (13 items) Absolute Value (2) 29, 30 Equations (4) 26 21, Exponents & Logs (4) 14, 15, 18, 19 Functional Notation (2) 27, 28 Graph Interpretation (4) 6 7, 8, 9 Linear Functions (3) Proportions (2) Quadratic Functions (2) Simplifying (3) 23 24, 25 Trigonometry (4) 1, 2 16, 17 Functions (8 items) OEA Report 0606: Mathematics Placement Test (MPT) Alignment with Washington State 6
7 Table 5. Proposed Changes to OEA Math Placement Test Subscales OEA Subscale Absolute Value 4 Basic Univariate Operations 5 Basic Bivariate Operations Intermediate Test Added from advanced Advanced Test Retained Definition /Examples Understanding of the concept of absolute value (e.g., solving absolute value equations). Able to solve simple univariate equations. Able to solve systems of simple equations in two variables. Basic Manipulations 6 Removed N/A This subscale seemed to be a hodgepodge of basic algebraic operations involving one and two variables, as well as simplifying, proportions, constructing linear functions, and computing the perimeter of rectangular objects. Distance Removed N/A This subscale was a strange combination of a fairly simple absolute value item and a rather complicated story problem requiring geometric knowledge of the Pythagorean theorem. Equations N/A Removed This subscale seemed to be a hodgepodge of basic algebraic operations involving one and two variables. Exponents Roots Logs Able to combine and simplify expressions involving rational exponents (e.g., simplify products and quotients of singleterm expressions with rational exponents). Able to combine and simplify expressions involving roots. Able to simplify logarithmic expressions and solve exponential equations through the use of the natural log. Comments Unsure how to handle absolute value inequalities. This subscale is primarily composed by items from the old basic manipulations and equations subscales. This subscale is primarily composed by items from the old basic manipulations and equations subscales. Recommend removal. Recommend removal. Recommend removal. Items pertaining to exponents are included on both tests. expanded to Exponents, Logs, & Roots. Items pertaining to roots are only on the intermediate test. expanded to Exponents, Logs, & Roots. Items pertaining to logs are only on the advanced test. expanded to Exponents, Logs, & Roots. Exponents & Logs N/A Removed Combination of definitions from above. Recommend removal. 4 All italicized subscales are those that currently exist for one test but not the other (e.g., currently there is an Absolute Value subscale only on the Advanced test). We recommend that all italicized subscales be added to both tests. 5 All bolded subscales are completely subscales we recommend be added to both tests. 6 All struck through subscales are ones we recommend removing from both tests. OEA Report 0606: Mathematics Placement Test (MPT) Alignment with Washington State 7
8 OEA Subscale Intermediate Test Advanced Test Definition /Examples Comments Exponents & Roots Removed N/A Combination of definitions from above. Recommend removal. Factoring Retained Added from Able to factor quadratic polynomials. intermediate Functional Notation Retained Retained Able to understand, interpret, and carry out computations involving functional notation. Geometry Able to use geometric properties and relationships of twodimensional figures to carry out calculations such as area, distance, and distance (e.g., apply the Pythagorean theorem, understand the idea of congruent parts of congruent triangles ). Graph Interpretation Retained Retained Able to interpret graphs for functions that are not explicitly linear or quadratic. Inequalities Retained Added from intermediate Linear Graphs & Functions Retained Graphs added Understanding how to manipulate inequalities (e.g., solving linear equalities in one variable). Able to model realworld situations using linear functions as well as understand the algebraic features of a linear function and the features of its graph and/or tabular representation (e.g., determine and interpret the meaning of slope, intercepts, zeros, and extreme). Proportions Retained Retained Able to complete multistep computations using the order of operations and the properties of operations (e.g., commutative property) in situations involving combinations of real numbers. Quadratic Graphs & Functions Simplifying Trigonometry Retained Added from advanced Added from advanced Graphs added Retained Retained Able to model realworld situations using quadratic functions as well as understand the algebraic features of a quadratic function and the features of its graph (e.g., determine and interpret the meaning of rates of change, intercepts, zeros, and extreme). Able to apply the quadratic formula. Able to simplify rational expressions resulting in an equivalent expression. Able to recognize, analyze, and interpret trigonometric functions (e.g., apply the basic righttriangle trigonometric relationships of sine, cosine, and tangent to solve problems). This subscale is primarily composed by items from the old Basic Manipulations, Distance, and Exponents and Logs subscales, as well as the retained Factoring and Linear Graphs and Functions subscales. Unsure how to handle the interpretation of graphs that appear to be linear or quadratic. Unsure how to handle absolute value inequalities. Some items on both tests involve interpreting graphs of linear functions. Some items on both tests involve interpreting graphs of quadratic functions. subsumed by basic operations subscales Items pertaining to trigonometry are only featured on the advanced test. OEA Report 0606: Mathematics Placement Test (MPT) Alignment with Washington State 8
9 Table 6. OEA Mapping of Math Placement Items by New OEA Subscales and College Readiness Mathematics Standard INTERMEDIATE TEST College Readiness Mathematics Standards Process Standards Reasoning / Current OEA Subscale ProblemSolving Communication Connections Number Sense Geometry (0 items) (13 items) (0 items) (5 items) (5 items) Absolute Value (1) 17 Basic Univariate Operations (2) Basic Bivariate Operations (1) Content Standards Probability / Statistics (9 items) Algebra (15 items) 1, 2 4 Functions (18 items) Basic Manipulations (7) 5, 7 6 5, 7 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 5, 7 Distance (2) Exponents (2) 10 10, 11 Roots (1) 9 Logs (0) Exponents & Roots (3) 10 9, 10, 11 Factoring (2) 12, 13 Functional Notation (3) , 30, 31 Geometry (4) 5, 7, 18 5, 7, 14, 18 5, 7, 14, 18 5, 7, 18 Graph Interpretation (3) 32, 33, 35 32, 33, 35 32, 33 Inequalities (1) 8 Linear Graphs & 19, 20, 21, 22, 20, 21, 24, 34 20, 21, 24, 34 Functions (7) 23, 24, 34 Proportions (3) 6, 15, 16 Quadratic Graphs & Functions (4) 27, , 26, 27 Simplifying (1) 3 Trigonometry (0) OEA Report 0606: Mathematics Placement Test (MPT) Alignment with Washington State 9
10 Table 7. OEA Mapping of Math Placement Items by New OEA Subscales and College Readiness Mathematics Standard ADVANCED TEST College Readiness Mathematics Standards Process Standards Content Standards Current OEA Subscale Reasoning / Probability / ProblemSolving Communication Connections Number Sense Geometry Statistics Algebra Functions (0 items) (12 items) (0 items) (3 items) (5 items) (7 items) (19 items) (14 items) Absolute Value (1) 30 Basic Univariate Operations (2) 21, 22 Basic Bivariate Operations (2) 20, , 26 Equations (4) 20, 26 21, 22, 26 20, 26 Exponents (2) 15 14, 15 Roots (0) Logs (2) 18, 19 Exponents & Logs (4) 15 14, 15, 18, 19 Factoring (1) 25 Functional Notation (2) 27, 28 27, 28 Geometry (2) 23 12, 23 12, Graph Interpretation (3) 6, 8, 9 6, 8, 9 8, 9 Inequalities (1) 29 Linear Graphs and Functions (3) 3, 4, , 5 4 3, 4 Proportions (1) Quadratic Graphs and Functions (3) , 11 7, 11 Simplifying (1) 24 Trigonometry (4) 16 1, , 17 OEA Report 0606: Mathematics Placement Test (MPT) Alignment with Washington State 10
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